2013-03-13

Medikuntza Kuantikoa: Iruzurra (I)


Gure gaur egungo gizartean, batez ere herrialde "garatuetan", duela 100 urte baino gutxiago ia ezagutzen ez ziren gaixotasunak agertu dira: minbizia, gaixotasun neurodegeneratiboak, stress emozionalarekin erlazionatutakoak, etab. Gaixotasun hauen zergatia ez dugu hemen ikusiko, ez naiz ez medikua ez psikologoa,  eta ezagutzen ez ditudan gauzetaz ezin hitz egin. Gaixotasun hauek, ulertu daitekeen moduan, gaixoengan eta inguruko pertsonengan desesperazioa, amorrua etab sortzen dituzte. Medikuntzaren aurrerapen izugarriak egon arren, gaixotasun guztien sendabidea ez du lortu (aizue, medikuak ez dira SUPER, gu bezalako pertsonak baizik) eta, hau baliatuz, hainbat "alternatiba" sortu dira. "Alternatiba" hauek, sinisten duten fede oneko pertsonak kenduta, amankomunean gauza bat dute: Jendearen sufrimendua aprobetxatu poltsikoak betetzeko. Gaur, Medikuntza Kuantikoaz arituko naiz.

Baina, zer da Medikuntza Kuantikoa? Google-en bilaketa egiten baduzue, lotura asko agertuko zaizkizue. 



Hauek bi kasu dira. Bideo honetan, azalduta ikus dezakezue ere bai. Pena merezi du ikusteak.



Hemen esaten den guztia errebatitzeko, denbora asko pasa beharko nuke idazten. Ez kezkatu. Gaur ez naiz gauza guztietaz arituko. Gomendatzen dizuet "Cuentos Cuánticos" blogean Medikuntza Kuantikoari buruzko  sarrera irakurtzea. Bertan, ez dira bideo honetaz aritzen konkretuki, baina oso ongi dago.

Nire helburua gaurko honetan ez da puntu guztiak errebatitzea. Nik hartuko dudan bidea, kontrakoa da. Kuantikan oinarrituta, ikusiko dugu molekula baten energia nola kalkulatzen ahal dugun, eta gero, hau jakinda, ikusiko dugu ea bideoan esaten dena posible den ala ez, kuantikoki.

Mikrohuin labeari buzuko sarreran, ikusi genuen molekula baten energia bitan banatu daitekeela. Energia elektronikoa eta nuklearra. Energia elektronikoa molekulan dauden elektroien energia maila konkretuek eta beraien arteko elkarrekintzek definitzen dute. Energia nuklearra, ordea, nukleoen mugimenduek definitzen dute. Mugimendu hauek badakigu zeintzuk diren: translazionala, errotazionala eta bibrazionala.  Hortaz, bi ekuazio dira molekulen energia kalkulatzeko askatu behar ditugunak: 

1) Schrödinger ekuazio elektronikoa
2) Schrödinger ekuazio nuklearra

Detailetan sartu gabe, esanen dizuet hau hurbilketa bat dela, benetan askatu beharreko Schrödinger ekuazioa ezin baitugu askatu, ezta molekula txikienaren kasuan: H2. Ezta kasu honetan! Horrela, egin dugun hurbilketa (Born-Oppenheimer deitzen da hurbilketa garatu zutenak Born eta Oppenheimer izan zirelako) kontutan hartuta, molekula baten energia totala horrela kalkulatuko genuke:

Etotala=Eelektronikoa+Etranslazionala+Eerrotazionala+Ebibrazionala

Sinplea dirudi, ez? Ba ez da batere sinplea. Energia elektronikoa kalkulatzeko askatu behar den Schödinger ekuazioa ezin da exaktoki askatu bi elektroi ala gehiago izanik gure molekulan. Hau da, kasu ia ia guztietan. Hortaz, hurbilketa gehiago egin behar dira. Ez naiz sartuko horretan. Bakarrik gogoratuko dugu atzoko sarreran, Superkonputazioa Euskadin 2013 Jardunaldian, esandakoaz. Adibidetzat hartuko dugu nire txarlan (behean ezkerrean) eta Angel Rubioren txarlan (behean eskuinean) aurkeztutako adibideak. 




















Efektu elektronikoak ahalik eta zehatzen nahi badugu kontutan hartu, gure molekula ezin da oso handia izan. Aldiz, molekula handiagotu daiteke efektu elektronikoak beste metodo kuantiko ez horren zehatzak kontsideratuz. Angel Rubiok aurkeztutako molekulan milaka elektroi daude, nire kasuan, aldiz, ehun bat. Kalkulu hauek egiteko, Angel Rubiok Europa mailan erabil daitekeen Superkonputazio Programa potenteena erabili behar izan zuen (PRACE), eta nik estatu mailan dagoen Superkonputadora potenteena (Mare Nostrum).

Egin kontu: Molekula hauen energia kalkulatzeko, Superkonputazio baliabide boteretsuenak erabili behar izan ditugu.  Baina, zelula batean, molekula bakarra al dago? Badakigu ezetz, milioika molekula daude zelula batean, eta milioika zelula gure gorputzean. Gure kalkuluetan, molekula gutxien (bi nire kasuan) arteko elkarrekintza kontutan hartu dugu. Zuek, benetan, uste duzue gure gorputzeko zelula sinpleenaren simulazioa egin dezakegula kalkulu kuantikoak erabiliz? Erantzuna garbia da. Hortaz, garunaren kalkulu kuantikoa egin daiteke? EZ. Hortaz, dedukzioz, hiru arrazoi egon daitezke Medikuntza Kuantikoaren inguruan "lorturiko ezagutza" azaltzeko:

1) Metodo kuantiko hobeagoak garatu dituzte, eta ez gara enteratu.
2) Superkonputadore superpotentea, agian jada Hiper izango da, daukate eta ez gara enteratu.
3) Gezurtero galantak dira, eta terminologia kuantikoa erabiltzen dute kuantikak oraindik azaldu ezin ez dituen gauzak azaltzeko.

Nik, erantzuna garbi daukat. Zuek?




Descargo de responsabilidad: He utilizado las imágenes sin ánimo de lucro, con un objetivo de investigación y estudio, en el marco del principio de uso razonable - sin embargo, estoy dispuesto a retirarlas en caso de cualquier infracción de las leyes de copyright.Disclaimer: I have used the images in a non for profit, scholarly interest, under the fair use principle - however, I am willing to remove them if there is any infringement of copyright laws.
  

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